(1960s to the mid-1970s) Conceptual Art
John Baldessari, Joseph Beuys, Marcel Broodthaers, Chris Burden, Gilbert & George, On Kawara, Joseph Kosuth, Piero Manzoni, Bernar Venet, Yoko Ono.
Conceptual art, also called post-object art or art-as-idea, artwork whose medium is an idea (or a concept), usually manipulated by the tools of language and sometimes documented by photography. Its concerns are idea-based rather than formal. Conceptual art is typically associated with a number of American artists of the 1960s and ’70s—including Sol LeWitt, Joseph Kosuth, Lawrence Weiner, Robert Barry, Mel Bochner, and John Baldessari—and in Europe with the English group Art & Language (composed of Terry Atkinson, Michael Baldwin, David Bainbridge, and Harold Hurrell), Richard Long (English), Jan Dibbets (Dutch), and Daniel Buren (French), among others. Conceptual art has been described as one of the most influential movements of the late 20th century, a logical extension of the work begun by the French artist Marcel Duchamp in 1914 to break the primacy of the perceptual in art.